GABA & Serotonin Deficiency Anxiety
© 2010 (version# 7/12) Peter Smith –Holistic Medicine Consultant-
The Nature of GABA
GABA The Brains Natural Valium
GABA is a calming inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is the brains natural endogenous Valium. It enables your brain to put an end to persistent worrying thoughts going around and around in your mind. We believe the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin enable the brain to inhibit and control anxious thoughts.
When GABA levels are deficient it can make it may make it almost impossible to stop worrying thoughts dominating and sometimes overwhelming your mind, even ordinary stresses and worries can be hard to manage.
One may develop:-
· anxiety, fearful, free floating anxiety,
· panic attacks, nervy/stressed,
· racing thoughts, inability to relax,
· get physical aches and pains because the nerves keep firing, possible causing/contributing to fibromyalgia,
· carbohydrate cravings.
Adequate GABA and serotonin activity in the brain engenders a calm, stable feeling. People with GABA dominant brains are often good organisers they can handle complex and stressful positions. A film producer for example has to manage multiple stress situations and crises in a single day at a fast and demanding pace. To cope with such a position takes lots of GABA activity to stay calm and put each stress full event behind them without dwelling on it as soon as the situation is resolved.
Without adequate GABA and serotonin levels not only can worrying thoughts persist longer than they need to, but as they go around and around they can escalate, gain momentum and grow into enormous, disturbing levels of fear, stress and anxiety. Persistent anxiety can ruin a person's life experience, it can debilitate their ability to function normally engaging in work, relationships and recreation.
Anxiety due to low levels of GABA can be effectively helped using natural remedies that boost GABA levels and put the brakes on anxious thoughts. Balancing brain chemistry in this way can be an effective long-term therapy in its own right, however -helpful this treatment can be- it has the inherent problem relying purely on external remedies to top up GABA levels and unfortunately one can rarely maintain an absolutely stable and symptom free state without also using psychological approaches.
An inherent problem with anxiety can be that the person is too afraid to try hypnosis and other psychological therapies fearing how it will make them feel.
The good news is that by increasing GABA and serotonin levels with natural remedies first can enable you to engage in useful psychotherapy without becoming overwhelmed. Even still any psychotherapy technique that relies heavily upon the person connecting to their painful feelings, experiencing and discussing them (associated technique) will at best struggle to be useful and may simply be unable proceed. I am a tremendous advocate of psychotherapy and it is with some considerable regret that I have to conclude that most psychotherapy techniques are in practice incapable of managing and treating many forms of anxiety. I suggest that any therapist reading this who does not at least understand the nature of the problem I'm talking about has never met anyone with real phobias or free-floating anxiety. See later for more on this.
The Anxiety Remedy Medicine Chest
GABA is unusual because it is both a simple amino acid, one of the building blocks of proteins and it is a neurotransmitter. This means that you can buy supplements of the actual neurotransmitter in order to boost your levels. To boost serotonin on the other hand you take tryptophan the amino acid that serotonin is made from, to boost GABA the amino acid is the neurotransmitter. Like all amino acids you should take GABA on an empty stomach.
GABA dosage is 500-5000 mg. It is considered a prescription medicine in the UK, but available for sale in the US (I use Now Foods GABA from www.iherb.com).
GABA and Human Growth Hormone A Fat Loss Technique
GABA supplements before bed have been shown in numerous studies to increases human growth hormone levels in the blood by up to five and a half fold with in 90 minutes of ingestion. This impressive GABA boosting effect is stronger than any other natural remedies can achieve and rivals what can be achieved with pharmaceuticals. You can combine high dose GABA supplementation with weight/strength training to create a turbo charged weight-loss regimen.
The rate of muscle growth is influenced by growth hormone levels, which are at their highest while you sleep. By holding back on your calorie intake and supplementing GABA before going to bed on the same days you do some strength-training, is an effective way you can increase fat loss.
Just to be clear strength-training involves using heavy enough weights to pushed your muscles to the point of failure, rest for a minute or so than repeat two or three times.
The muscles will try to grow bigger in response to being overwhelmed, and as they grow they burn lots of calories. The calories have to come form somewhere, and as long as you don’t add the extra calories to your diet the muscles will eat into your body fat to get the calories they need.
To benefit from this effect look up your recommended sedentary daily calorie needs and eat that amount or less. Take 3000−5000 mg immediately before bed on days you do an intensive weight/strength-training workout. I will go into more detail of this technique in a subsequent book but the basic principal is say you wanted to loose 10 kilo’s (22 lbs.) you set out to grow 2 kilo’s (5 lbs.) of muscle. GABA can help you do it.
Strength-training can injure you if you don’t know what you are doing, so get some tuition and you must build up to it slowly over months if you are a novice to build up the strength and density of your ligaments and tendons.
These high doses on of GABA may also induce a restful sleep.
GABA does not have any major side-effects and is generally considered very safe. GABA can induce sleepiness when taken in doses above 500 to 1000 mg and therefore one should exercise sensible caution before doing anything such as driving. According to one website I have read it’s possible for GABA to produce temporary changes in one's breathing (either too fast or too slow) and an increased heart rate, however I have never observed this in my practice. Another suggested side-effect of GABA that I've never seen is temporary and mild tingling sensations.
There are no known adverse interactions between GABA and other medications. Intuitively one might think that combining GABA with tranquillising and anti-anxiety medications such as Valium or benzodiazepine may be too sedating; however this has not been reported in the medical literature and I have prescribed is combination in my practice. So as long as your blood pressure and pulse rate remained normal and you're not falling asleep all over the place you can use this combination to help you through withdrawal from these medicines.
Theanine is an herbal compound found in tea. Have you ever noticed that the effects of a cup of tea are very different from the effects of cup of coffee? Tea can contain just as much caffeine as coffee and yet it feels far less stimulating and maybe even relaxing, this is because of the presence of theanine.
Theanine promotes a relaxed state, increases GABA levels and reduces anxiety. What is particularly interesting and useful about theanine is that it is able to do this without shutting down the brain's ability to learn and remember. In fact studies on rats suggest that theanine may actually improve learning performance, promote concentration and heightened mental acuity, making it perfect for students with exam anxiety.
Theanine dosage, intake is most effective in the range of 50-200 mg, with no more than 600 mg being taken in a six hour period. FDA recommends a maximum dose of 1200 mg daily, although the reason for this limit is not clear, due to its demonstrated safety.
It may be taken at the first signs of stress with the effect being felt within 30 minutes and lasting for 8-10 hours. There are no known adverse reactions to L-theanine and no drug interactions have been reported. L-theanine is not affected by food and may be taken with or without meals.
Theanine made decoys blood pressure and so if you're already on hypertension medication you should monitor your blood pressure to make sure that it doesn't go to low.
Although it is probably safe for pregnant women and nursing mothers safety is not proven.
Some teas grown in high mountain areas are naturally very rich in theanine. They tend to be very expensive but may provide a nice way of boosting your natural GABA levels. You can find them online sold as GABA Tea. All tea however and especially green tea can provide a useful daily GABA supplement, I drink two pots of Qi organic Jasmine green tea per day and attain a continuous GABA supporting affect from it. Long before I even knew there was a connection between green tea, theanine and anxiety I noticed that when my supplier temporarily ran out I developed high stress levels and occasionally became too agitated to easily fall asleep.
In addition to its beneficial calming effect the antioxidants in green tea have been shown to significantly reduce your cancer risk particularly to bowel cancer. You need to drink at least for Chinese cups, about two of our mugs of green tea per day. Green tea should not be made with fully boiling water, the resulting beverage will have less antioxidants and probably taste horribly bitter, the perfect temperature is 80° C (176° F). If you're serious about regularly drinking green tea you can buy sophisticated kettles on which you can set the temperature you want the water heated to. I put a mark on my kettle to simply indicate how full to make it with boiling water and another mark to top it up to with cold water to make 80°C water.
GABA vs. Theanine
Theanine has very predictable effect, you get to know exactly how theanine will affect you; GABA however can be slightly less predictable. At doses above 500 mg GABA can sometimes produce a more tranquillising and sleepy effect than the same dose at other times. When taken in the evening or before sleep slight differences in the strength of effects are unimportant, but during the day you may need to know exactly how a specific dose will affect you. Let’s say you have a meeting at work and you are suffering some disabling anxiety, you want to take the edge off the anxiety but still be sharp and wide awake, in this case theanine would be a much better choice. Theanine does not cause drowsiness and for these reasons I recommend theanine for use during the day and GABA during the evening/night.
My anecdotal observation and personal experience is that theanine generally produces a stronger antianxiety effect than GABA, however you should get both and experiment with each one separately and combined together to find the optimum antianxiety prescription for your unique brain chemistry.
If you do ever feel too tranquillised from GABA supplements you could probably quickly antidote the effect with coffee. This combination may even produce the sharp but anxiety free state you want, try it!
Vitamin B 3 (Niacinamide)
There is some evidence dating back from the 1970s and 80s that high doses of vitamins B3 produces a diazepam like anti-anxiety effect. I have to admit I do not have any clinical or personal experience with this so I don't know if it works. Benefits are supposed to be observable within two weeks please e-mail me if you try this remedy and find an effective.
Vitamin B3 comes in different forms. As little as 300mg of the niacin form of B3 can produce a harmless ‘hot-flush’ reaction on the skin within a couple of hours lasting 30 mins or so. The first time you get this reaction can be a bit alarming, because it looks just like a severe allergic reaction, it is totally harmless however and even claimed to be good for the skin. Because of the flushing effect you cannot take niacin in the high doses needed for anxiety, use the niacinamide form of B3 instead.
Medical Update B 3
It has been observed that high doses of B3 raises the so-called good HDL cholesterol and it used to be believed that this would be protected against heart disease. Unfortunately research done in the last few years showed that although the three does raise HDL cholesterol it does not reduce mortality from heart disease, so it turned out to be a dead end like so many other approaches to prevent heart disease. I'll be publishing a book on preventing heart disease and a revolutionary breakthrough that has been shown to be able to reverse arterial disease in 2013.
Very high doses of inositol (18 g per day, 18,000 mg) have been used in properly conducted scientific trials and shown to reduce the frequency of panic attacks as well as the leading drug fluvoxamine. The improvements from inositol were obtained more quickly and with fewer side-effects than the drug (3). The same high dosage of inositol has been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of OCD, but not in patients that were found to be resistant to antidepressant drugs (4).
Despite inositol being helpful in some panic disorders and depression the dosage of 18 g needed to achieve significant results is in my opinion too high to be practical for long-term use. I've observed several people who have tried this dosage and found it to be effective in short-term use. Perhaps for occasional use at times of severe symptoms it could be useful. Inositol is fairly tasteless and can be taken in powder form to reduce the number of capsules one has to swallow and the cost.
A modest dose of 1000-1500 mg taken with dinner or lasting at night appears to be capable of producing a mild antidepressant and sleep benefiting affect.
Melatonin is not strictly an antianxiety medication and is only included in the antianxiety remedy chest because of its benefits as a sleep aid. On those occasions when anxiety is keeping you awake melatonin may provide some additional help. Melatonin may be combined with all the other remedies described in this book at the same time.
Serotonin & Anxiety
Although GABA is the brains primary inhibitory neurotransmitter it is common today to prescribe antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin (SSRIs) to treat anxiety
The fact that serotonin increasing antidepressant drugs can be helpful at relieving anxiety symptoms indicates both that serotonin deficiency may be involved in anxiety and that brain chemistry is very commentated.
One of the main reasons that antidepressant drugs are being prescribed for anxiety is that compared to antianxiety medicines they have less side-effects, they are less addictive and less likely to cause harm if accidentally or deliberately over consumed. To be frank compared to antidepressants research and development of useful antianxiety medication is in the doldrums.
Serotonin increasing antidepressant drugs take up to 4 to 6 weeks to begin relieving symptoms of anxiety and therefore cannot be used in the same "as needed" way as theanine and GABA can. The amino acid tryptophan can boost serotonin levels overnight. Therefore the natural remedies are quick acting and enable you to fairly quickly test the efficacy of boosting either serotonin or GABA.
Which Neurotransmitter to Boost for Anxiety GABA or Serotonin
Both GABA and serotonin are inhibitory (sedating) neurotransmitters and as such can enable us to control anxious thoughts. It will vary from individual to individual whether increasing GABA or serotonin levels will have the best therapeutic effects with anxiety disorder. As mentioned elsewhere in this book at this point in time there is absolutely no reliable way of measuring neurotransmitter deficiencies in the brain (please don't waste your money on your intestines) and so which neurotransmitter is more important in your individual case is best determined by personal trial and error.
I would therefore recommend buying GABA, theanine (to increase GABA levels) and tryptophan (to increase serotonin levels) when you start trying to rebalance your brain chemistry for anxiety so that you have everything you need to experiment and establish your individual makeup.
see Serotonin chapter for more.
How to Increase GABA
GABA level rise after eating carbohydrates if you get a very relaxed feeling after eating carbs it’s probably because you’ve just boosted deficient GABA levels. To benefit from this effect you can frequently consume complex or low GI carbohydrates. You should balance the carbs in a GR/zone way by eating protein and oil at the same time and you must watch the total glycaemic load. You don’t want to become an overweight diabetic from the GABA diet! See Balancing Blood Sugar chapter.
Glutamic acid (which makes GABA) rich foods are: almonds, halibut, mackerel, jumbo oats, beef liver, walnuts, rice bran, lentils.
GABA Supplements (daily amounts):
· Theanine typical dose: 100-200 mg, you can take up to a maximum of 1200 mg over 12 hours for extreme times. (Lamberts is excellent value)
For a quicker effect you can open the capsule and hold the powder under your tongue to absorb the theanine sublingually (thanks for that tip Libby). Alternatively you could open the capsule into a bottle of water to sip throughout the day.
· GABA 500-5000 mg, (available from www.iherb.com)
· Always add a B complex 50 mg when taking individual B vitamins at a high dose.
Additional Useful Supplements for Anxiety
· Inositol 1000-18,000 mg, (you can use this very high rather impractical dose to help you through periods when the symptoms are at their worst).
· Melatonin 0.3 mg (300 mcg) –3 mg, (as a sleep aid, lack of sleep increases stress hormone levels the following day, these hormones ramp up feelings of anxiety).
· Thiamine (B1) 200-600 mg, (possibly helpful, safe and worth experimenting with).
· Niacinamide (no-flush B3) 1500-2500 mg, (I include this for research and experimental purposes only, antianxiety effects not established in my practice).
· Tryptophan 1000-2000 mg taken on empty stomach ideally lasting at night, (tryptophan increases serotonin levels which may produce an antianxiety effect in your case).
· Reduce anti-anxiety medication incredibly slowly, whilst using supplements during the transition. Get experienced professional help you come off antianxiety meds.
· Do not drive a vehicle after taking GABA or melatonin.
GABA Life Style, Meditation and Exercises
Exercise is always good a study in 2013 found that the brains of stressed rats that ran developed more of the neurones (brain cells) that specifically release GABA. These neurones shush and quieten down activity in the brain. The increase in the GABA neurones was most notable in parts of the brain that are associated with processing emotions.
(J Neurosci. 2013 May 1;33(18):7770-7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5352-12.2013. Physical exercise prevents stress-induced activation of granule neurons and enhances local inhibitory mechanisms in the dentate gyrus. Schoenfeld TJ, Rada P, Pieruzzini PR, Hsueh B, Gould E. Source Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA).
Starting exercise if you don’t do any is the hardest part, once you get going it gets easier.
Keeping Busy and Work To Control Anxiety
For people with anxiety disorder keeping busy may be a key component of the strategy they use to cope with their condition. In psychotherapy terms this is referred to as an “away-from motivation” i.e. you are motivated to keep busy to avoid or move away from uncomfortable feelings, as opposed to “towards motivation” where one is motivated to do with thing because it brings positive pleasure and rewards into your life; away-from motivated activities are driven by the desire to move away from or avoid pain and displeasure, towards motivated activities driven by the desire to move towards pleasure and reward. Wanting to be alone because you are a healthy naturally introverted person who enjoys doing things by themselves would be a towards motivation, on the other hand wanting to be alone because you have social anxiety disorder and feel anxious around people would be an example of an away-from motivation. Conversely a person may socialise with people they don’t even particularly like because they can’t stand or fear being alone as opposed to seeking other people’s company because they enjoy the company of others. In some quarters of psychotherapy away-from motivations are considered to be undesirable and rather unhealthy because rather than facing and dealing with their issues the person is simply avoiding them and yet the issues will still persist in the background constantly disturb them; obviously this is a possibility and there are circumstances when stopping a boarding one’s issues and facing them in therapy is the better option that simply carrying on and will lead to healthier long-term outcomes. However this isn’t going to be the case in all circumstances, for example I watched YouTube TED talk video of a woman with quite profound lifelong schizophrenia who had become a professor of law who said that one of the things that she used to cope with her condition was engaging her mind in solving very complex intellectual problems. My point is that if you have to live with an as yet not completely curable mental health condition and you find that engaging in healthy busy activities helps you to lead a better life it is wrong to consider this a negative distraction or avoidance of your problems.
Actually my personal recommendation in this regard is that you play both sides of the fence so to speak and on the one hand consciously identify activities that feel safe, stable, perhaps easy distractions from your uncomfortable feelings, what you could call safe ground and deliberately increase and develop your level of participation in these activities; you want to be able to quickly pick up one of these activities and find your way back to safe ground. As you develop the aspects of your life that you can turn to to help you cope at times when your condition is very challenging you then may be able to increase your ability to do therapy/meditation where for a short and contained time you deliberately expose yourself to a manageable level of your problem state. Just to be clear I’m not saying that you should principally build up your safety ground so that you can do therapy and that therapy/meditation is the ultimate goal, for I believe that consciously used away-from motivated activity is a useful tool for living with mental health problems in its own right.
If it turns out that you are someone that to some extent relies upon being busy as a means of controlling uncomfortable anxiety thoughts and feelings then the stillness that some meditations create may turn out to be an intolerable experience as opposed to be helpful therapeutic technique.
In theory you would think meditation would be great for anxiety but in practice it doesn’t always deliver what you might expect. The principal problem is it can simply be impossible for people with anxiety to perform meditation. In the past I taught meditation and like most meditation teachers I was convinced with enough perseverance anyone could overcome any initial uncomfortable feelings while learning to meditate, but when I met people with real anxiety disorder it was completely obvious that something different was happening for some of these people; meditation did not produce a calming effect but provoked an overwhelming rise of their anxiety condition that made it completely impossible to continue the meditation. My believe that in the long run meditation would b helpful was so tantalising that I persisted trying to persuade these people to persevere not fully understanding at that time the severity and intensity of the symptoms. I should say that this phenomenon does not always occur and some people with anxiety are able to learn to meditate and benefit from doing so.
For those few unfortunate people who do experience this phenomenon there may be a way of adjusting the meditation technique to get around this problem and benefit from meditative techniques ability to remodel the brain in a way that reduces anxiety.
Firstly there is the problem of “stillness”. As discussed above many people and not just with people anxiety disorder avoid experiencing uncomfortable thoughts and feelings by keeping themselves preoccupied and busy with work and social activities, in other words being busy helps as a distraction from painful thoughts and feelings such that when they are not busy enough they will feel very uncomfortable. What can happen when one makes one’s mind go very still as you do during mindfulness meditations is that uncomfortable thoughts and feelings that you had managed to previously pushed of the background appear to well up and become much more apparent.
If the stillness that mindfulness-based meditations create is a problem I would recommend that you could try non-mindfulness-based techniques such as chanting and some of the kundalini Yoga type meditations. If you think of mindfulness-based meditations as sitting quite still and passively kundalini yoga chanting type meditations are very different; they can be incredibly busy with you having to multitask chanting, maintaining a specific fast-paced breathing rhythm, perhaps tapping your fingers in a particular rhythm and simultaneously holding your mental focus or mind-eye on a specific point in your body. With this style of meditation your mind is so busy and preoccupied with the procedure you are performing that you are at least temporarily not bothered by any of the mental concerns. The busyness of the meditation crowds out all other thoughts and distractions and its strange paradoxical way creates its own inner stillness and calmness free from distracting thoughts worries and feelings. This type of meditation sounds complicated but actually it may even be easier for beginners to master because one of the big problems with “stiller” meditation techniques is that it can be difficult to hold one’s focus on the meditation and prevent the mind wandering off or being overwhelmed by uncomfortable feelings. What happens when you do this style of meditation what happens is you settle into a melodic rhythm
There is a very important consideration you need to understand before simply picking a kundalini Yoga type meditation from a book or a YouTube video. Different meditations have different effects and you need to know what you’re doing. The traditional descriptions of the effects of different meditations use completely non-scientific language, for example one meditation may be described helps to soften a hardened heart and develops one’s compassion, or this meditation strengthens one’s aura for greater self-protection. However un-scientific this language may be brain scans have in fact shown that different meditations do indeed stimulate development of the brain in different areas. As soon as scientific studies of the effects of meditation are able to help me pick and choose the best specific meditation for a particular problem I’ll use it, but at the moment science is unable to do this and in the mean time we have to rely upon the collected anecdotal evidence and wisdom of meditation practitioners over the centuries for guidance as to what effects a specific mediation may have.
Using the traditional descriptions if you are suffering from an anxiety condition you do not want to do any meditations described as “opening” “softening” “expanding” etc., you want to be choosing meditations that are described as protecting, toughening, consolidating, strengthening the aura etc. You are already open enough and overly sensitive to your surroundings, you don’t want to become more sensitive; you also want to stay away from any meditations that induce a “spacey” condition. Instead you want to choose meditations that encourage a “grounded” experience. There are now many kundalini Yoga meditation teachers around the world and I highly recommend that before just trying these techniques on your own you attend a class or consult with one of these teachers, myself included.
One last piece of advice about these busy chanting type meditations: straight after you stop the chanting don’t jump up and go about the rest of the day but spend some time just sitting peacefully; if you’ve done the meditation successfully and for long enough you may find that you experience a blissful and calm stillness immediately after the chanting stops. This may last from just a few moments through to many minutes, gently hold yourself in this healthy altered state of consciousness for as long as you can without being disappointed if you can only maintain it for a single minute, it’s not a performance or competitive exercise. The chanting part creates a meditative effect in its own right, however one can also use the chanting part as a setup exercise to achieve a still-mind meditative state.
The second problem with some meditation techniques for people with anxiety is that they involve controlling and slowing down one’s breathing. Now for the vast majority of people slowing down and controlling one’s breathing is an simple and effective way to change the state of stress within the nervous system. It quickly reduces the stress fight or flight responses and increasing the relaxation responses within their nervous systems; however there is a small percentage of people for whom slow breathing meditation techniques provoke stress responses, sometimes even extreme stress responses and panic attacks. The good news for these people is that there is an alternative breathing technique which produces an almost instantaneous calming and antianxiety effect, this technique is called Buteyko breathing.
Relaxation Response Training
Another potentially useful technique for anxiety is training yourself how to automatically on command switch off current stress responses in your nervous system and switch on a relaxation response. I developed training program for this over many years initially as part of my strategy for treating irritable bowel syndrome, high blood pressure and adrenal exhaustion but subsequently found it to be useful for a variety of conditions. It should be noted that this technique only teaches you how to switch off stress responses after they’ve occurred and it does not prevent them from occurring in the first place, nor does it treat the primary anxiety; it would however significantly reduce the negative physical consequences that the repeated unnecessary stress responses anxiety causes may be having on your body. Like mindfulness meditations the relaxation response training programme involves stilling the mind and therefore may not be something that people with anxiety are able to perform at least until the condition is improved for the reasons discussed above. See Relaxation Response Training
Putting It All Together
1/ If your anxiety is definitely situational or connected to a known traumatic event try therapy first if you are able to.
2/ If you are unable to make use of therapy because your anxiety is too extreme and overwhelming, or your anxiety is free-floating try reducing your symptoms and stabilising your condition before trying therapy by supplementing GABA and serotonin boosting remedies. Experiment with increasing GABA and serotonin levels individually one at a time and then in combination both together to establish your ideal prescription. Keep a detailed journal of what you take each day so that you can refer back and work out what helps.
3/ Then as soon as you are able to consult a cognitive hypnotherapist or similar experienced therapist to permanently install long-lasting changes in your mind to more permanently deal with this problem.
(1)Emerging Treatments. Clinical Psychology Review (vol 29, 8, Dec2008)
(2)The safety and efficiency of 3, 4-methylenedioxyymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomised controlled pilot study. Mythoefer et. al. Journal of psychology 2010.
(3)Double blind controlled crossover trial of inositol vs fluvoxamine in panic disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 2001; 21:335-339
(4)inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of psychiatry 1996
© 2010 (version# 7/12) Peter Smith –Holistic Medicine Consultant-
Today I primarily use nutritional medicine, cognitive hypnotherapy, NLP and Bicom therapy to treat metal, digestive and functional health problems like chronic fatigue and IBS.
I have extensive experience (both professional and personal) and a forthcoming book (2013) in nutritional approaches to balancing brain chemistry and psychological approaches to treating depression, bipolar syndrome and anxiety.
I practice at the Hale Clinic (central London) as a holistic medical practitioner and have been in practice since 1988.
Over the years I’ve trained in Nutritional /naturopathic medicine, body-cantered psychotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, Acupuncture, Bicom resonance therapy (which treats allergies and viruses), meditation, Kundalini yoga, Cognitive Hypnotherapy and NLP.
For a more information on my practice and a list of conditions I treat click here About My Practice
For bookings call the Hale Clinic reception
020 7631 0156
Mobile 07941 331 329
© Peter Smith –Holistic Medicine Consultant-
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